最新二十篇文章公告:判決與法律命令之解析、契約與商業模式之範例
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朱崇佑 律師

學歷:

國立政治大學智慧財產研究所碩士班

國立政治大學資訊管理/法律學士

 

經歷:

敦信法律事務所實習律師

資格:

律師考試及格(2015)

專長:

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林柏均律師    Po-Chun Lin, Esq.

學歷:

美國Emory University法學碩士 (LL.M)
美國University of La Verne企業管理碩士(M.B.A)
私立中國文化大學法律學系學士
私立中國文化大學日本語文學系學士
經歷:
台達電子工業股份有限公司 法務
泰金寶電通股份有限公司 法務
美國Laws.com   Associate 

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陳雅鈴 實習律師

學歷:

國立台灣大學進修學士班法律學系 2006-2011

國立成功大學醫學檢驗生物技術學系碩士班 2003-2005

國立成功大學醫事技術學系 1999-2003

經歷:

世盟生物科技有限公司產品客服專員

羅氏醫學儀器公司應用科學部約聘業務助理

國科會研究助理

資格:

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黃怡然 律師

學歷:

國立台灣大學醫學檢驗暨生物技術碩士班

國立台灣大學醫學檢驗暨生物技術學士

國立台灣大學法律學分班

經歷:

國科會「變異脂蛋白元A5功能之研究計畫」研究助理

資格:

律師考試及格

醫事檢驗師考試及格

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  第一章 初始條款和總定義

  第二章 貨物貿易

  第三章 紡織品和服裝

  第四章 原產地規則

  第五章 海關管理與貿易便利化

  第六章 衛生和植物衛生措施

  第七章 技術性貿易壁壘

  第八章 貿易救濟

  第九章 投資

  第十章 跨境服務貿易

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IV. CONCLUSIONLessons and Learned

In Hawaii, Final Environment Impact Statement (FEIS) is the most important process to ensure that the agency make right decisions to the proposal or actions triggered by HRS§ 343-5.

From the Kawailoa project, we learned that failure to (1) provide accurate and sufficient evaluation of visual impact (though it is not avoidable at some level), and (2) fully communicate in order to get the communities’ full awareness of the possible environmental impacts, and (3) provide adequate cultural impact assessment, will possibly negate the fundamental purpose as set forth in HRS§343-1, HAR §11-200-1, and cause a concern whether the accepting agency have chance to have a “hard look” at all impacts and alternatives under the procedural requirements.

In the meantime, wind turbines have been criticized for disrupting the lives of birds and bats, also humans. Noise and shadow flicker are the most common concerns, with some correlation between the most vigorous complaints and parties who do not receive economic benefit from nearby installations. That’s actually what happen in InfraVest Wind Power project located Yuanli town, Miaoli county, Taiwan as we mentioned in the introduce of this article.

Just assumed the InfraVest project generated in Hawaii, as a hypothetical new wind farm project, residences of Yuanli may consider:

(1) Hire experts[i] to prepare visual impact assessment from more different distances, angles, and neighbor areas; to aggressively make comments in each period for public comments after the published of draft of environment impact statement (DEIS) by providing those Visibility Impact Assessment (VIA) results to be qualified for taking HRS § 343-7 (C) “judicial proceeding”.

(2) Periodically monitor the governmental website to see any publication of EA/EIS information made by the Environment Counsel, in order to avoid improper segmentation and get ready to participate in any opportunity of public communication in a timely manner

(3) Take records in each step or meetings of public communication as evidence to prepare for the judicial challenge in HRS § 343-7 (b) or (c).

(4) Take cautions to ensure the new project will be well scoped without improper segmentation.

(5) In case ANY current status of turbines in Yuanli would be changed, ex, removed, added, or replaces, the residences may try to request a supplemental EIS (SEIS) to be submitted to the Environment Counsel, thus to ask removal of certain wind turbines from the current InfraVest project and reduce the visual and cultural impacts to the local scenes or to reduce the noise level to human.

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Kawailoa wind turbines    

PART III. THE CHALLENGES ON COMPLIANCE WITH HAWAII EIS PROCESS

Although there was no judicial proceeding(HRA §343-7) imposed on the Kawailoa Wind Farm, this project it stillexhibited substantive and procedural deficiencies. Substantively, the Visual Impact (VI) was not properly addressed in the DEIS or FEIS report; and public participation was possibly inadequate to meet the EISpurpose as set forth in HRS §343-1, either. Procedurally, a Cultural Impact Assessment (CIA) was not included in the EIS process. We may have a quick look of those deficiencies in this section, then consider certain lessons learned in conclusion.

(1)   Visual impacts of the wind turbines.

The local citizengroups, NGOs, and individual residents continually concerned about the visual impacts of the wind turbines caused by Kawailoa project. The criticisms including:

(a) whether the red flashing FederalAviation Administration (FAA) lights mounted on the wind turbines have been discussed;[i]

(b) the DEIS did not adequately address how the facilities will be situated in appropriate locations to minimize their visual impact;

(c) what techniques will be used to blend the facilities and equipment into the natural environment;[ii]and

(d) lack of sufficient simulations at observation points along Kamehameha Highway.[iii]

 

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In Taiwan, development of renewable energy is an irreversible trend to replace, at least partially, the fossil energy.  Article 21 of the Basic Environment Law (2002) (環境基本法, the "Basic Law") ruled " Government bodies at all levels shall actively implement measures to control carbon dioxide emissions and establish related plans to mitigate the greenhouse effect."  The wind power has been broadly recognized as a primary type of renewable energy, because of it  less carbon emissions,  sustainable power generation, lower ecological damage, and respectively higher energy conversion rate (compare to other renewable energy). 

 

In order to ensure the energy development will not cause irreparable harm to the environment, Article 24 of the Basica Law further regulated that "The central government shall establish an environmental impact assessment (EIA) system to prevent and reduce the negative impact of government policies or development activities on the environment."   Section 1(10), Article 5 of the Environmental Impact Assessments Act openly stipulated the EIA shall be conducted for "nuclear and other energy" developments.  Such "other energy" include the wind power.[1]

 

However, a big wind power project proposed by the InfraVest Wind Power Group (a Germany company) located in Yuanli, Miaoli county, which had passed the EIA process, encountered local residences’ continual contests since 2012. What is the thing going on the EIS in this Yuan-li project? Whether the impact, caused by the noises, of the quality of residents’ life surrounding the wind turbines was not be sufficiently considered in the EIS process? This paper wants to introduce the Final Environment Impact Statement (FEIS)-- determined by the State of Hawaii-- for the Kawailoa Wind Farm project located on the north shore, as a reference. Hopefully we may have a lesson and learn for improvement on Taiwan’s environmental Impact Assessment system in the future.

 

This article has four parts. Part I will introduce the Kawailoa Wind Farm project. Part II is the factual and procedural background for this project. Part III is an analysis to the compliance of this project with Hawaii’s EIS regulations, and certain insufficiency of the procedure. Part IV will try to make some recommends to Taiwan’s EIS for wind power project, and conclude balance and hope in the wind power projects in Taiwan. Instead of the plans for off-shore wind power, this article will focus on the traditional inland wind turbines because it is still Taiwan’s sole wind power solution.

 

Part I INTRODUCTION

In 2010, Kawailoa Wind LLC[2] (“Kawailoa Wind”), proposed constructing a wind farm that included thirty sets of wind turbines and related wind energy generating facilities at the Kawailoa Plantation land (a big farm land on the north shore, Oahu, Hawaii), which was owned by Kamehameha Schools[3] (the “Project”). Kawailoa Wind prepared a final environmental impact statement (the “FEIS”) under Hawaii Restated Statutes (“HRS”) chapter 343 and Hawaii Administrative Rules (“HAR”) 11-200. Because this Project was established on highly scene-sensitive and culturally sensitive land in world famous popular visitor/tourist area (North Shore, Oahu)[4], the local residents were concerned about the aesthetical, ideological, and cultural impact.

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FACTUAL BACKGROUND

In 2007, Kamehameha Schools developed a North Shore Master Plan to integrate the use of their lands on the North Shore of Oahu, Hawaii. They seek the returns of culture, education, environment, economy, and community of this region (the “Master Plan”).[1] “Wind energy has shown great promise for economic returns from preliminary studies…The wind technology has a relatively small footprint will likely be compatible with most agricultural uses.”[2] Under such consideration of “economic returns,” Kamehameha School adopted the Kawailoa Wind project as a part of the Master Plan and provided the lands, which closed to the Waimea Bay--the most famous beach park in North Shore, to Kawailoa Wind.

Kawailoa Wind proposed to build renewable energy (wind power) facilities,[3] including thirty wind turbines with generating capacity of up to 70 MW per hour and other supporting structures.[4] In addition, related communication equipment was installed at two existing Hawaiian Telecom facilities on Oahu’s highest mountain--Mt. Ka`ala. Because of this installation, the EIS process was mandatorily triggered. As per Hawaii law.

Although Kawailoa Wind claimed that its goal was to increase the use of clean, renewable energy and reduce the State of Hawaii’s dependence on fossil fuels, a twenty-five (25) years power purchase agreement, [5] with stable revenues, was entered into with Hawaii Electric Cooperation (“HECO,”) which constituted a significant incentive to Kawailoa Wind-- for the sake of such substantial economic benefits.

PROCEDRUAL BACKGROUND

The Hawaii EIS process related to the Kawailoa Wind project includes:

  •  the trigger of EIS process;
  • the scoping;
  • the EIS preparation notice (EISPN);
  • the draft EIS (DEIS);
  • the final EIS (FEIS); and
  • the mitigation methodology.

In most cases, a judicial challenge process under HRS § 343-7 would allow the public/environmental/community groups to help the decision makers better consider the new wind farm project more completely, while the Kawailoa Wind did not faced those private challenges. Here is a brief of the mentioned processes.

(1) EIS trigger: because Kawailoa Wind project used a small piece (0.27 Acres) of land o Although the Kawailoa project did not get into the n Mt. Ka’ala owned by the State, the EIS process was triggered under the HRS§ 343-5(a).[6] However, according to the HRS § 201N-8 (b), the permission for a renewable energy facility shall not be made until after final acceptance of an environmental impact statement, and a draft EIS shall be prepared at the earliest practicable time.[7] Accordingly, an EIS process shall be required for the new Pupukea Wind project.  

(2) Scoping: Scope is an important step in the EIS process after it is triggered. Scoping is to determine the scope of the EIS, and to determine the significant issues to be discussed in the EIS.[8] An applicant may segment the proposal into separated pieces thus to evade the possible EIS process and defeat the purpose of EIS review. Therefore, a proposal shall be well scoped to prevent improper segmentation.[9] In Hawaii, there are four scenarios of actions will be treated as a single action in order to avoid “segmentation”.[10] Maimea Valley may monitor such scoping-relevant activities noticed by the Office of Environmental Quality Control (OEQC)[11] in order to step in earlier.

(3) EISPN: On September 23, 2010, First Wind LLC prepared an EIS Preparation Notice (EISPN) and submitted tothe Hawaii State Energy Office of Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (the “DEBDT”) in accordance with the HRS § 201N-8 (2013) and HRS § 343-5(e), without Environmental Assessment (the “EA,” which is usually the first stage of environmental impact evaluation.)[12] A thirty-day consultation period expired on October 30, 2010.[13]

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所長 范國華執行合夥律師 台大財經法學士、美國加州大學柏克萊分校法學碩士、國政法大學商法暨智慧財產權法 法學博士

學歷:

中國政法大學民商法學院知識產權法學博士(北京)、美國加州大學柏克萊分校法學碩士、(加州)、英國倫敦大學國王學院歐盟法研究(英國)、國立台灣大學法學院法律系財經法學

組法學士(台北)、國立中興大學土壤環境科學系肄業(台中)、新竹中學畢業

現任:

仲裁人、律師、專利代理人、商標代理人

眾律國際法律事務所暨眾律國際事務所專利商標事務所 所長

上海眾法知識產權代理有限公司 創辦人

經歷:

1.技嘉科技(股)公司法務智權處法務長暨副總經理、協理、副處長、法務室經理(新北)、立法委員國會助理(台北)、台灣新竹地方法院法官助理(新竹)、上櫃公司巨圖國際/勝麗國際(股)有限公司 獨立監察人(台北)

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郭凌豪 律師/台中所所長 東吳法學碩士

學歷:國立彰化師範大學教育學士(2001)、東吳大學法律學系法律專業碩士班(2007-2010)

經歷:中華民國陸軍上尉(2001-2006)

專長:民事法、民事訴訟、刑事訴訟、行政訴訟、契約撰擬與審閱、政府採購

證照與曾受訓練:律師高考及格(2011)

最近處理過的重大案件:房屋買賣糾紛、工程款給付糾紛、著作權侵害民事求償、知名購物網站消費糾紛、政府採購案、商標法案件刑事辯護、妨害名譽案件刑事辯護、誣告案件刑事辯護、刑事詐欺告訴、性騷擾案件

語言:台語、國語、英語

 

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路世安 地政士/不動產經紀人

學歷:萬能科技大學工業工程與管理科、中原大學財經法律系金融法學組

經歷:廣和國際法律專利商標事務所法務主任、台新銀行授信部法務專員、聲威法律事務所法務專員、永安土地專業代理人事務所負責人  

專長:法律類:民法、強制執行法、公寓大廈管理條例、消費者保護法;地政類:土地法、平均地權條例、土地稅法、遺產及贈與稅法、地籍清理法規;財稅類:節稅規劃、財產信託、資產管理、不良債權處理;仲介類:土地、房屋、商辦廠辦、道路用地、農地農舍、拍賣承受、土地承領。

證照與曾受訓練:台灣不動產經紀人/代書(地政士)特考及格,台北市地政士公會,現代房屋旗艦店經理,台北市不動產經營者協會副秘書長,台灣金融資產服務股份有限公司創始地政士,內政部核定不動產經紀人營業員換證訓練課程講師

語言:台語、國語、英語

 

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Shi-An Lu Real Estate Attorney

Education:

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