最新二十篇文章公告:判決與法律命令之解析、契約與商業模式之範例
提供企業從事國內外商務交易上,所須知的各種法律規定及其風險的預防控管,而就各種法律規定、各項商業模式、各別法院判決與常用契約範本而寫的參考文章。本部落格之文章可讀性高、內容廣泛,從日常生活常見的買賣、租賃、公寓大廈管理到公司經營常見的產業模式、新創募資、合夥協議、投資併購、盡職調查、勞資關係、公司治理、上市上櫃、證券交易、技術移轉、經銷代理、國際商品買賣、供應鏈協議(OBM、ODM、OEM)、專利、商標、著作權、營業秘密保護相關之題目都有。本部落格的文章及其回覆,不代表本所的正式法律意見。如需進行各種商業交易的合法審查、各國商務契約的草擬談判、提起訴訟或應訊應訴、專利商標著作權之申請、授權及訴訟,請就近聯繫台北所02-27595585,新竹所03-6675569。E-mail:info@zoomlaw.net。本所詳細資訊請自行參閱:http://www.zoomlaw.net 所長法學博士范國華律師敬啟

目前分類:律師團隊 (17)

瀏覽方式: 標題列表 簡短摘要

朱崇佑 律師

學歷:

國立政治大學智慧財產研究所碩士班

國立政治大學資訊管理/法律學士

 

經歷:

敦信法律事務所實習律師

資格:

律師考試及格(2015)

專長:

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林柏均律師    Po-Chun Lin, Esq.

學歷:

美國Emory University法學碩士 (LL.M)
美國University of La Verne企業管理碩士(M.B.A)
私立中國文化大學法律學系學士
私立中國文化大學日本語文學系學士
經歷:
台達電子工業股份有限公司 法務
泰金寶電通股份有限公司 法務
美國Laws.com   Associate 

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陳雅鈴 實習律師

學歷:

國立台灣大學進修學士班法律學系 2006-2011

國立成功大學醫學檢驗生物技術學系碩士班 2003-2005

國立成功大學醫事技術學系 1999-2003

經歷:

世盟生物科技有限公司產品客服專員

羅氏醫學儀器公司應用科學部約聘業務助理

國科會研究助理

資格:

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李怡仙 實習律師

學歷:
國立台北大學法律學系學士
國立台北大學法律學系財經法組碩士研究

經歷:
第一銀行一般行員法律組
國科會計畫「由德國企業社會責任至德國公益公司法制之進程與未來」研究助理
國科會計畫「德國股份有限公司董事責任與義務之演變─兼論部分亞洲大陸法系國家之相關發展」研究助理
國立臺北大學公法研究中心助理
理律盃模擬法庭辯論比賽冠軍隊長

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黃怡然 律師

學歷:

國立台灣大學醫學檢驗暨生物技術碩士班

國立台灣大學醫學檢驗暨生物技術學士

國立台灣大學法律學分班

經歷:

國科會「變異脂蛋白元A5功能之研究計畫」研究助理

資格:

律師考試及格

醫事檢驗師考試及格

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林碧瑩  

學歷:  
英國伯明翰大學法學士 (2014)
英國華威大學英語語言、翻譯與文化研究學士 (2009)

經歷:
常在國際法律事務所,法務專員 (2015)
亞信國際專利商標事務所,國外部專員 (2014-2015)

語言:
國語、英語

 

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  第一章 初始條款和總定義

  第二章 貨物貿易

  第三章 紡織品和服裝

  第四章 原產地規則

  第五章 海關管理與貿易便利化

  第六章 衛生和植物衛生措施

  第七章 技術性貿易壁壘

  第八章 貿易救濟

  第九章 投資

  第十章 跨境服務貿易

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IV. CONCLUSIONLessons and Learned

In Hawaii, Final Environment Impact Statement (FEIS) is the most important process to ensure that the agency make right decisions to the proposal or actions triggered by HRS§ 343-5.

From the Kawailoa project, we learned that failure to (1) provide accurate and sufficient evaluation of visual impact (though it is not avoidable at some level), and (2) fully communicate in order to get the communities’ full awareness of the possible environmental impacts, and (3) provide adequate cultural impact assessment, will possibly negate the fundamental purpose as set forth in HRS§343-1, HAR §11-200-1, and cause a concern whether the accepting agency have chance to have a “hard look” at all impacts and alternatives under the procedural requirements.

In the meantime, wind turbines have been criticized for disrupting the lives of birds and bats, also humans. Noise and shadow flicker are the most common concerns, with some correlation between the most vigorous complaints and parties who do not receive economic benefit from nearby installations. That’s actually what happen in InfraVest Wind Power project located Yuanli town, Miaoli county, Taiwan as we mentioned in the introduce of this article.

Just assumed the InfraVest project generated in Hawaii, as a hypothetical new wind farm project, residences of Yuanli may consider:

(1) Hire experts[i] to prepare visual impact assessment from more different distances, angles, and neighbor areas; to aggressively make comments in each period for public comments after the published of draft of environment impact statement (DEIS) by providing those Visibility Impact Assessment (VIA) results to be qualified for taking HRS § 343-7 (C) “judicial proceeding”.

(2) Periodically monitor the governmental website to see any publication of EA/EIS information made by the Environment Counsel, in order to avoid improper segmentation and get ready to participate in any opportunity of public communication in a timely manner

(3) Take records in each step or meetings of public communication as evidence to prepare for the judicial challenge in HRS § 343-7 (b) or (c).

(4) Take cautions to ensure the new project will be well scoped without improper segmentation.

(5) In case ANY current status of turbines in Yuanli would be changed, ex, removed, added, or replaces, the residences may try to request a supplemental EIS (SEIS) to be submitted to the Environment Counsel, thus to ask removal of certain wind turbines from the current InfraVest project and reduce the visual and cultural impacts to the local scenes or to reduce the noise level to human.

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Kawailoa wind turbines    

PART III. THE CHALLENGES ON COMPLIANCE WITH HAWAII EIS PROCESS

Although there was no judicial proceeding(HRA §343-7) imposed on the Kawailoa Wind Farm, this project it stillexhibited substantive and procedural deficiencies. Substantively, the Visual Impact (VI) was not properly addressed in the DEIS or FEIS report; and public participation was possibly inadequate to meet the EISpurpose as set forth in HRS §343-1, either. Procedurally, a Cultural Impact Assessment (CIA) was not included in the EIS process. We may have a quick look of those deficiencies in this section, then consider certain lessons learned in conclusion.

(1)   Visual impacts of the wind turbines.

The local citizengroups, NGOs, and individual residents continually concerned about the visual impacts of the wind turbines caused by Kawailoa project. The criticisms including:

(a) whether the red flashing FederalAviation Administration (FAA) lights mounted on the wind turbines have been discussed;[i]

(b) the DEIS did not adequately address how the facilities will be situated in appropriate locations to minimize their visual impact;

(c) what techniques will be used to blend the facilities and equipment into the natural environment;[ii]and

(d) lack of sufficient simulations at observation points along Kamehameha Highway.[iii]

 

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In Taiwan, development of renewable energy is an irreversible trend to replace, at least partially, the fossil energy.  Article 21 of the Basic Environment Law (2002) (環境基本法, the "Basic Law") ruled " Government bodies at all levels shall actively implement measures to control carbon dioxide emissions and establish related plans to mitigate the greenhouse effect."  The wind power has been broadly recognized as a primary type of renewable energy, because of it  less carbon emissions,  sustainable power generation, lower ecological damage, and respectively higher energy conversion rate (compare to other renewable energy). 

 

In order to ensure the energy development will not cause irreparable harm to the environment, Article 24 of the Basica Law further regulated that "The central government shall establish an environmental impact assessment (EIA) system to prevent and reduce the negative impact of government policies or development activities on the environment."   Section 1(10), Article 5 of the Environmental Impact Assessments Act openly stipulated the EIA shall be conducted for "nuclear and other energy" developments.  Such "other energy" include the wind power.[1]

 

However, a big wind power project proposed by the InfraVest Wind Power Group (a Germany company) located in Yuanli, Miaoli county, which had passed the EIA process, encountered local residences’ continual contests since 2012. What is the thing going on the EIS in this Yuan-li project? Whether the impact, caused by the noises, of the quality of residents’ life surrounding the wind turbines was not be sufficiently considered in the EIS process? This paper wants to introduce the Final Environment Impact Statement (FEIS)-- determined by the State of Hawaii-- for the Kawailoa Wind Farm project located on the north shore, as a reference. Hopefully we may have a lesson and learn for improvement on Taiwan’s environmental Impact Assessment system in the future.

 

This article has four parts. Part I will introduce the Kawailoa Wind Farm project. Part II is the factual and procedural background for this project. Part III is an analysis to the compliance of this project with Hawaii’s EIS regulations, and certain insufficiency of the procedure. Part IV will try to make some recommends to Taiwan’s EIS for wind power project, and conclude balance and hope in the wind power projects in Taiwan. Instead of the plans for off-shore wind power, this article will focus on the traditional inland wind turbines because it is still Taiwan’s sole wind power solution.

 

Part I INTRODUCTION

In 2010, Kawailoa Wind LLC[2] (“Kawailoa Wind”), proposed constructing a wind farm that included thirty sets of wind turbines and related wind energy generating facilities at the Kawailoa Plantation land (a big farm land on the north shore, Oahu, Hawaii), which was owned by Kamehameha Schools[3] (the “Project”). Kawailoa Wind prepared a final environmental impact statement (the “FEIS”) under Hawaii Restated Statutes (“HRS”) chapter 343 and Hawaii Administrative Rules (“HAR”) 11-200. Because this Project was established on highly scene-sensitive and culturally sensitive land in world famous popular visitor/tourist area (North Shore, Oahu)[4], the local residents were concerned about the aesthetical, ideological, and cultural impact.

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FACTUAL BACKGROUND

In 2007, Kamehameha Schools developed a North Shore Master Plan to integrate the use of their lands on the North Shore of Oahu, Hawaii. They seek the returns of culture, education, environment, economy, and community of this region (the “Master Plan”).[1] “Wind energy has shown great promise for economic returns from preliminary studies…The wind technology has a relatively small footprint will likely be compatible with most agricultural uses.”[2] Under such consideration of “economic returns,” Kamehameha School adopted the Kawailoa Wind project as a part of the Master Plan and provided the lands, which closed to the Waimea Bay--the most famous beach park in North Shore, to Kawailoa Wind.

Kawailoa Wind proposed to build renewable energy (wind power) facilities,[3] including thirty wind turbines with generating capacity of up to 70 MW per hour and other supporting structures.[4] In addition, related communication equipment was installed at two existing Hawaiian Telecom facilities on Oahu’s highest mountain--Mt. Ka`ala. Because of this installation, the EIS process was mandatorily triggered. As per Hawaii law.

Although Kawailoa Wind claimed that its goal was to increase the use of clean, renewable energy and reduce the State of Hawaii’s dependence on fossil fuels, a twenty-five (25) years power purchase agreement, [5] with stable revenues, was entered into with Hawaii Electric Cooperation (“HECO,”) which constituted a significant incentive to Kawailoa Wind-- for the sake of such substantial economic benefits.

PROCEDRUAL BACKGROUND

The Hawaii EIS process related to the Kawailoa Wind project includes:

  •  the trigger of EIS process;
  • the scoping;
  • the EIS preparation notice (EISPN);
  • the draft EIS (DEIS);
  • the final EIS (FEIS); and
  • the mitigation methodology.

In most cases, a judicial challenge process under HRS § 343-7 would allow the public/environmental/community groups to help the decision makers better consider the new wind farm project more completely, while the Kawailoa Wind did not faced those private challenges. Here is a brief of the mentioned processes.

(1) EIS trigger: because Kawailoa Wind project used a small piece (0.27 Acres) of land o Although the Kawailoa project did not get into the n Mt. Ka’ala owned by the State, the EIS process was triggered under the HRS§ 343-5(a).[6] However, according to the HRS § 201N-8 (b), the permission for a renewable energy facility shall not be made until after final acceptance of an environmental impact statement, and a draft EIS shall be prepared at the earliest practicable time.[7] Accordingly, an EIS process shall be required for the new Pupukea Wind project.  

(2) Scoping: Scope is an important step in the EIS process after it is triggered. Scoping is to determine the scope of the EIS, and to determine the significant issues to be discussed in the EIS.[8] An applicant may segment the proposal into separated pieces thus to evade the possible EIS process and defeat the purpose of EIS review. Therefore, a proposal shall be well scoped to prevent improper segmentation.[9] In Hawaii, there are four scenarios of actions will be treated as a single action in order to avoid “segmentation”.[10] Maimea Valley may monitor such scoping-relevant activities noticed by the Office of Environmental Quality Control (OEQC)[11] in order to step in earlier.

(3) EISPN: On September 23, 2010, First Wind LLC prepared an EIS Preparation Notice (EISPN) and submitted tothe Hawaii State Energy Office of Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (the “DEBDT”) in accordance with the HRS § 201N-8 (2013) and HRS § 343-5(e), without Environmental Assessment (the “EA,” which is usually the first stage of environmental impact evaluation.)[12] A thirty-day consultation period expired on October 30, 2010.[13]

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根據8月23日蘋果日報報導,日本有人設計「翻群機器人」程式,製造出虛擬ID後加入某個Line群組,然後可以在一瞬間解散群組。新北市某少女取得翻群機器人程式後,用來解散了一個網購服飾群組,經營該群組的賣家非常生氣,套出某少女的實話後,向警局報案,警局以妨害電腦使用罪函送法院少年法庭,最重可以處五年以下有期徒刑等。

隨著網路社群的風行,各式社群出現了群組功能,基於不同目的、身分而產生各種群組,社群成員也有機會加入各種群組,群組的管理因此變得日漸重要。而群組的管理方式,例如新增、移除群組成員,或是改變成員的權限,視系統(社群業者)之設定而異。例如臉書的社群,只有具管理者權限的成員,才能夠移除成員;至於Line的群組,在功能上,並沒有管理者與一般成員的區別,也就是說,人人都具有管理者權限。所以Line群組的成員名單,其實任何一個成員都可以編輯,換句話說,Line一開始就授予每個群組成員可以新增或刪除成員的權限。所謂翻群機器人,也不過就是在加入某群組之後,以程式自動化地、快速地把所有成員一個一個刪除,直到刪光所有成,群組自然就解散了。

報導內容只說警方以「妨害電腦使用罪」函送少年法庭,但沒有說明使用的法條。對照刑法妨害電腦罪章的可能適用法條,不外乎刑法第358條、第359條和第360條,以下簡單地逐條檢討:

一、刑法第358條規定:無故輸入他人帳號密碼、破解使用電腦之保護措施或利用電腦系統之漏洞,而入侵他人之電腦或其相關設備者...

在此暫不檢討立法本身的問題(以下兩條也是)。使用翻群機器人,是把程式裝在自己的手機或電腦上,合法送出刪除成員的指令到Line的伺服器,Line的系統也依照上述系統的權限設定,接受並在伺服器執行刪除成員的指令,而其他成員是在自己的手機或電腦上看到執行的結果,其間並沒有「入侵他人電腦或相關設備」的行為,不成立刑法第358條之罪

二、刑法第359條:無故取得、刪除或變更他人電腦或其相關設備之電磁紀錄,致生損害於公眾或他人者...

使用翻群機器人之後,會造成Line伺服器與群組及使用者有關的電磁紀錄被修改(變更)甚至刪除,但請回頭看看條文內容, 一開始就是「無故」兩個字(另外兩條也是),作何解釋呢?在此忍不住向當年參與制訂草案的學者專家小小抱怨一下,立法者在強調明確性的刑法上加上不確定性高的用語,風險是要由司法來承擔的!從美國法(18 USC 1030)或歐洲理事會網路犯罪公約的用語可以看出,「無故」應限於「無授權(without authorization)」或「無權利(without right)」的情形。翻群機器人雖然變更或刪除了電磁紀錄,但這本來就是Line系統設定的權限所容許,所以沒有「無故」,也不成立刑法第359條之罪。

三、刑法第360條:無故以電腦程式或其他電磁方式干擾他人電腦或其相關設備,致生損害於公眾或他人者...

刑法第360條的干擾電腦罪,是以電磁方式破壞對於電腦的可用性(Availability),參照立法理由,本條處罰之對象乃「對電腦及網路設備產生重大影響之故意干擾行為」,例如以DDoS方式攻擊電腦,當然成立,就本案來說,刪除這個群組,造成使用者的不便,對於可用性的確發生影響,但是影響極微,算不上是對於電腦及網路設備的重大影響,而且是權限所允許,也不符「無故」的要件,所以恐怕也不會成立。

那麼警局函送少女,表示警方錯了?不,警方沒有不移送的權利,有人告,就要送,但從警方是「移送」或「函送」,可以看出警方的態度。後者的意思是:有人這麼告,但我們(警方)覺得好像,可能,不確定是有那麼一回事,所以請您(檢察官或法院)參考看看吧!

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歡迎徐仕瑋律師加入本所為合夥律師,徐律師原任臺灣臺北地方法院檢察署公訴組(重大金融案件專庭)、智慧財產暨電腦犯罪專組檢察官,於今年七月底離開司法界、八月加入本所為合夥人。
 
徐律師之學經歷、法律與網路專長,如下:
 
學歷與證照:
 
司法官特考及格
律師高考及格
國立交通大學科技法律研究所碩士
國立臺灣大學法律系司法組學士
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所長 范國華執行合夥律師 台大財經法學士、美國加州大學柏克萊分校法學碩士、國政法大學商法暨智慧財產權法 法學博士

學歷:

中國政法大學民商法學院知識產權法學博士(北京)、美國加州大學柏克萊分校法學碩士、(加州)、英國倫敦大學國王學院歐盟法研究(英國)、國立台灣大學法學院法律系財經法學

組法學士(台北)、國立中興大學土壤環境科學系肄業(台中)、新竹中學畢業

現任:

仲裁人、律師、專利代理人、商標代理人

眾律國際法律事務所暨眾律國際事務所專利商標事務所 所長

上海眾法知識產權代理有限公司 創辦人

經歷:

1.技嘉科技(股)公司法務智權處法務長暨副總經理、協理、副處長、法務室經理(新北)、立法委員國會助理(台北)、台灣新竹地方法院法官助理(新竹)、上櫃公司巨圖國際/勝麗國際(股)有限公司 獨立監察人(台北)

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傅爾洵 律師/專利代理人/專利師/東台灣所主持律師

眾律國際法律事務所 東台灣所主持律師/專利代理人/專利師

學歷:中國文化大學法律學系法學組學士(1997)

經歷:宏泰企業集團法務(1999-2000)、中國法律稅務服務中心/陳井星法律事務所律師(2003-2005)、法律扶助基金會義務律師、技嘉科技股份有限公司法務智權處法務經理(2005-2009)

專長:一般民、刑事訴訟及行政爭訟案件處理、企業法律風險防範與法務制度規劃、商務及智慧財產權授權契約設計、撰擬與法律諮詢、專利、商標、著作權等智慧財產權爭議案件處理、中國大陸地區合約審閱與運營法律風險評估。

證照與曾受訓練:律師高考及格(2003)、專利代理人(2003)、專利師(2009)

語言:台語、國語、英語

專業社團:台北律師公會、高雄律師公會、台東律師公會、INTA國際商標協會(倫敦)、亞洲代理人協會

 

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郭凌豪 律師/台中所所長 東吳法學碩士

學歷:國立彰化師範大學教育學士(2001)、東吳大學法律學系法律專業碩士班(2007-2010)

經歷:中華民國陸軍上尉(2001-2006)

專長:民事法、民事訴訟、刑事訴訟、行政訴訟、契約撰擬與審閱、政府採購

證照與曾受訓練:律師高考及格(2011)

最近處理過的重大案件:房屋買賣糾紛、工程款給付糾紛、著作權侵害民事求償、知名購物網站消費糾紛、政府採購案、商標法案件刑事辯護、妨害名譽案件刑事辯護、誣告案件刑事辯護、刑事詐欺告訴、性騷擾案件

語言:台語、國語、英語

 

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路世安 地政士/不動產經紀人

學歷:萬能科技大學工業工程與管理科、中原大學財經法律系金融法學組

經歷:廣和國際法律專利商標事務所法務主任、台新銀行授信部法務專員、聲威法律事務所法務專員、永安土地專業代理人事務所負責人  

專長:法律類:民法、強制執行法、公寓大廈管理條例、消費者保護法;地政類:土地法、平均地權條例、土地稅法、遺產及贈與稅法、地籍清理法規;財稅類:節稅規劃、財產信託、資產管理、不良債權處理;仲介類:土地、房屋、商辦廠辦、道路用地、農地農舍、拍賣承受、土地承領。

證照與曾受訓練:台灣不動產經紀人/代書(地政士)特考及格,台北市地政士公會,現代房屋旗艦店經理,台北市不動產經營者協會副秘書長,台灣金融資產服務股份有限公司創始地政士,內政部核定不動產經紀人營業員換證訓練課程講師

語言:台語、國語、英語

 

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Shi-An Lu Real Estate Attorney

Education:

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