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目前分類:Taiwan Trademark Law (12)

瀏覽方式: 標題列表 簡短摘要

Trademark search is important. Trademarks are considered as one of the most important and valuable assets of a business. A good trademark would allow a business to build brand reputation and public goodwill in its goods or services sector. A trademark search is a review of various information and helps to ferret out potential conflicts (which is, intent-to-use, prior use to a similar mark). The trademark search report provides useful information. Such search can give us an idea of the protectability of the mark especially whether such trademark is distinctive or diluted and for which trademarks a particular company owns. If the search findings show that there are numerous references to similar mark for similar goods, the proposed mark may be considered weak and the scope of protection would be narrow. Searching a trademark prior registering is crucial as forgoing a search can be risky. Defendant’s failure to conduct trademark search may constitute “carelessness” and the court may weight in favor of plaintiff’s right to injunctive relief.[1] The description of goods for the proposed mark must be furnished in arranging for a search. It is crucial to insert accurate trademark descriptions because the search will focus on similar marks for similar goods as well as identical marks for unrelated goods.

Trademark search is usually conducted with a review of trademarks recorded on the register for that particular country. Some trademark searches may need to cover multiple countries. It is however uncommon for a trademark to be available for use and registration in all countries. Therefore an alternative trademark may be required in some other countries. Such searches can take about one to two weeks to complete, however it can also be as quick as a few days or as long as several months. Longer time is usually required if there are adverse results and additional steps needs to be taken.

United States for example, “full search” would include searching the U.S. Trademark Register; U.S. pending trademark applications; market directories; state registrations; domain names; telephone directory listings; trade name listings; reported directions and online database and industry publications directed to the goods or services being searched. Such trademark search should be analyzed from two perspectives that are: protectability of the mark from infringing use by others and availability of the mark for use.

Sometimes it can be difficult to determine when you spot potential trademark conflicts. This is especially the case between competitive, similar or closely related marks or goods. You must first evaluate whether the prior user has grounds for protest. In addition, if such grounds for protest exist, you must assess the risk of monetary relief or injunctive should suit be filed. Nevertheless, sometimes potential trademark conflicts can be rested by further investigation. It is important to check whether such trademark is still in use or whether such mark was discontinued. However please keep in mind that even if a trademark registration has expired, such trademark may still in use. One of the reason for such expiration may be due to inadvertent failure to file the necessary maintenance documents. The owner of the expired registration may still be entitled to rely on common-law rights based on his/her continued use.[2] Alternatively, when there is a potential conflicting trademark, you can possibly seek for the other trademark owner’s consent. If you believe prima facie the description of goods on its surface is similar, but the channels of distribution and purchasers do not overlap with each other, it is possible for the first user to be willing to consent for your use. You might also sweeten the negotiation by imposing some restrictions. 

                                                                                                                                                                                            


[1] Chips’ N Twigs, Inc. v. Chip-Chip Ltd., 414 F. Supp. 1003, 1015 (E.D.); cf. Pizzazz Pizza & Rest. V. Taco Bell Corp., 642 F. Supp. 88, 94.

[2] Siegrun D. Kane. Kane on Trademark Law (2009).

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商標「善意」先使用:明知或非明知? 實習律師李汝民 Using its trademark with Bona fide: knowingly or not knowingly? Intern Lawyer Ru-Min Lee

前言Preamble

商標法第30條第1項第3款規定:在他人商標註冊申請日前,善意使用相同或近似之商標於同一或類似之商品或服務者,不受他人商標權之效力所拘束。同款但書並規定,善意使用以原使用之商品或服務為限,商標權人並得要求其附加適當之區別標示。此即商標法所謂「善意先使用」之規定(商標法逐條釋義,頁95),其立法目的在於,商標權人於商標獲准註冊後雖享有排除他人使用其商標之權利,但為了避免過度保護商標專用權利反而造成市場自由競爭之阻礙、以及適當調和商標先註冊主義與先使用主義之衝突,故對於商標專用權利加諸一定之限制。

Trademark Act Article 30, Paragraph 1(3): by bona fide, prior to the filing date of the registered trademark, the proprietor of the registered trademark is entitled to request the party who use the trademark to add an appropriate and distinguishing indication when there is an identical or similar trademark on goods or services identical with or similar to those for which the registered trademark is protected for which the use is only on the original goods or services.

The purpose for such is for the proprietor of the registered to exclude others from using its registered trademark. Even though such third person knowingly used another person’s well-known registered trademark with bona fide (Trademark Act Interpretation, page 95). However in order to prevent overprotection on its trademark right which obstruct its free trade competition, it is important to have an appropriate reconciliation between the first register doctrine and the doctrine of first use of trademark. Therefore some of the restrictions need to be imposed on its trademark rights.

「善意」之解釋

What is ‘bona fide’?

然,所謂的「善意」,解釋上可能如同民法條文之「善意第三人」,係「不知情」之意。則「善意先使用」即須不知有他人商標,而使用相同或近似之商標於同一或類似之商品或服務,方可主張。

However the word ‘bona fide’, from its interpretation in civil law means ‘bona fides third party’, which has ‘not knowingly’ meaning. Where the trademark is identical with or similar to another person’s registered trademark in relation to goods or services, for which another person’s registered trademark is designated, does exists its likelihood of confusion on relevant consumers, would have grounds for revocation.

實務上有台灣台北地方法院93年度智字第70號判決可供參考。該判決指出,「商標法第30條第1項第3款之『善意』,係指『並非以不正當競爭為目的』,即使商標權人已使用商標,未申請註冊,但第三人明知該商標己使用,卻使用他人商標,在商標權人註冊商標後,第三人仍使用該商標,其不得主張係善意使用。」

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商標權之侵害及救濟

Infringement of registered trademark and its remedy

眾律國際法律事務所|眾律國際專利商標事務所|專利工程師暨法務 簡敏丞

Zoomlaw Attorneys-At-Law|Zoomlaw IP Attorneys|Patent Engineer and Legal Assistant Cheng-Ming Jane

壹、民事責任之侵害行為及法律效果

1. Violations of Civil Liability and its legal effect

一、一般侵害之行為

(1) General Infringement                                                                       

台灣商標法第61條第2項明文規定:『未經商標權人同意,而有第29條第2款規定情形之一者,為侵害商標權。』而第29條第2項所規定之各款,即對於商標權排他效力之規定,必須要得到商標權人之同意,否則即為侵害商標權人之商標權,其包括下列情形:

Taiwan’s Trademark Act Article 61, paragraph 2 expressly indicates that: “in the course of trade, without consent of the proprietor of a registered trademark in any of the following act, constitute infringement and the right of such trademark.” Article 29, paragraph 2 listed out all grounds for refusal of registration that any of the following acts, without consent of the proprietor of a registered trademark, shall be deemed as infringement of its trademark right:

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各國之商標公序良俗簡介 眾律國際法律事務所實習律師陳映青

Introduction of trademark’s public order and morality in different countries

By Intern Lawyer Ying-Qing Chen (Zoomlaw Attorneys-At-Law)

壹、美國[1]

1. United States of America[1]

一、美國1946年商標法§2(a)[2]

商標申請內容包含不道德、欺罔或可恥的事項,或由該等事項構成者,得不予註冊商標。

1. U.S. Trademark Act of 1946§2(a) (15U.S.C.§1052)

No trademark by which the goods of the applicant may be distinguished from the goods of others shall be refused registration on the principal register on account of its nature unless consists of or comprises immoral, deceptive, or scandalous matters.

二、商標審查程序手冊(TMEP)

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商標註冊之優點 律師張源傑

Advantages for Trademark Registration

By Yuan Jie, Cheng (Attorney-At-Law)

一、商標權於註冊後方獲得保障[1]

1. Protection covered once trademark is registered 

我國商標制度是以註冊保護為原則。因此,商標依法申請註冊取得商標權後,註冊商標除了可以自己使用及授權他人使用外,還可以排除他人以相同或近似的商標指定使用於同一或類似商品或服務上。因此,商標如欲獲得法律上權利之保障,必須依法註冊;註冊後其保護之效力及於全國。

Taiwan employs a first-to-register system for trademark protection. Therefore, once such trademark obtained its trademark in compliance of law after registration, the registered owner can use its registered trademark exclusively or to authorize such trademark to others. In addition, the registered trademark can exclude others from using the same kind of goods or similar goods shall apply for registration of an associated trademark. Therefore, if you want to gain legal protection of your trademark, you must register such trademark by law. Such protection would cover its protection in the whole country.[1]

二、對於侵害商標權之人請求損害賠償[2]

2. Damages claim for trademark infringement[2]

如果有任何人未經商標權人同意使用該註冊商標,有侵害商標權人使用、收益或有侵害商標權之可能情形,商標權人可以請求排除或防止商標權被侵害;對於故意或過失侵害商標權的人,也可以請求損害賠償。

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台灣商標程序之註冊商標程序助理陳芃

Trademark registration procedure in Taiwan 

Trademark application assistant Chen Peng 

我國現行商標法係採取註冊主義及先申請主義。我國商標法第二條明定,欲取得商標權、證明標章權、團體標章權或團體商標權者,應依本法申請註冊。

Taiwan employs a first-to-register system for trademark protection. Article 2 of the Trademark Law in Taiwan expressly indicates that “Any person who wishes to obtain the rights of trademark, certificate mark, collective membership mark, or collective trademark shall apply for registration therefore in accordance with this Act.”

一、申請人

1. Applicant

申請人應具備之主觀要件為確具使用意思,客觀要件則須為表彰自己營業之商品者。其中所謂之營業,依商標法施行細則第五條之規定事項認定之,包括公司登記、商業登記、營利事業登記等項目,或具體營業計劃、股東會決議及其他相關事證。

Applicant should be subjective to ensure the purpose of application but to be objective when representing its sales of commodities. For its business operation, it is necessary to comply with Rule 5 of the Enforcement Rules of Trademark Act, including its company registration, business registration, operation business, or specific business plans, shareholder meetings or any other related matters.

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什麼樣的商標可以註冊律師張源傑

What kind of trademark can be registered?

By Yuan Jie, Cheng (Attorney-At-Law)

一、前言:

1. Introduction:

如果一個商標是在說明商品或服務來自於特定業者,則可以註冊;如果一個商標是在說明商品或服務的內容是什麼,就不可以註冊。

If a trademark is describing its product and service for a particular industry, such trademark can be registered; however if a trademark is describing what a particular goods and services are, such trademark cannot be registered.

二、什麼樣的商標可以申請註冊[1]:

What kind of trademark can be registered?[1]

第一種可以註冊的商標,例如google。Google使用於網路搜尋之網站,是一個與網路搜尋毫不相關的名稱,也就是完全創新的名稱,因此可以註冊。反之,如果想註冊「網路搜尋」「快速」等商標於網路搜尋網站,因為這些名稱與服務之內容相同或是相關,因此不得註冊。

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Taiwan Trademark 101 Series, the Protection of Well-known Trademarks.

Written by: James Y. Chang

  Attorney-at-Law

1. Preamble

If a trademark didn’t file for registration in Taiwan, it still can be protected by the well-known trademark right from both national laws and international conventions.

 

2. Regulations

Taiwan is a member of WTO. According to the Article 2 of WTO TRIPS agreement, members shall comply with Articles 6[1] of the Paris Convention (1967) which rules that no application shall be filed for registration of a trademark that is identical or similar to another person’s well-known trademark or mark that it is likely to cause public confusion.

Even though Taiwan is not a membership of WIPO, she follows the well-known mark agreement[2]of WIPO to protect them from either the use of that mark is likely to impair or dilute in an unfair manner the distinctive character of the well-known mark or the use of that mark would take unfair advantage of the distinctive character of the well-known mark[3]. The Trademark Act[4] of Taiwan recognizes two types of well-known trademark dilution, namely likelihood of dilution of the distinctiveness of well-known trademarks and likelihood of dilution of the reputation of well-known trademarks, which protection is as well as the rules of WIPO.

 

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Taiwan Trademark 101 Series, What Should I Do When My Trademark Has a Likelihood of Confusion Problem?

Written by: James Y. Chang

Attorney-at-Law

1. Preamble

The competent authority found that the application for the trademark registration had a likelihood of confusion existing between the two trademarks by physical examinations and the application should be rejected. Before rendering a disposition of refusal pursuant to the preceding paragraph, a written notice stating grounds for refusal shall be given to the applicant, who may make following observations on the intended refusal within the prescribed period[1].

 

2. Restriction of the Designated Goods or Services

According to the Article 23 and 38 of the Trademark Act, no amendments shall be made unless such amendment is a restriction of designated goods or services. The restriction of goods may be made by deleting some of the designated goods, by changing a broader range of general goods to specific particular goods, for instance, cosmetics to lipsticks, or by defining the specification to particular goods of interest the applications of the goods, for instance, vaporizers to vaporizers for industrial use[2].

 

3. Request to Divide Application

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Taiwan Trademark 101 Series,   Distinctiveness

Written by: James Y. Chang

Attorney-at-Law

1. Trademarks Distinctiveness

The main function of a trademark is to identify the source of goods or services. If a sign cannot identify and distinguish goods or services, it does not have the trademark function and the registration cannot be approved. Distinctiveness is an important requirement for registration of a trademark [1] . The details of distinctiveness are as follows:

 

2.   Fanciful Marks

Fanciful marks are devices which have been invented for the sole purpose of functioning as a trademark and have no other meaning than acting as a mark. Fanciful marks are considered to be the strongest type of mark [2] . Approved cases [3] :

    "GOOGLE" for search engine services

    " 震旦 " ("Aurora") for transmission services by telecommunications weighted networks

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Taiwan Trademark 101 Series, What is a Trademark?

 

Written by: James Y. Chang

Attorney-at-Law

1. What Does a Trademark Do

A trademark generally protects brand names and logos used for goods and services. It is generally a word, phrase, symbol, device, or even color, shape or packaging of goods, motion, hologram, sound, or a combination. The trademark is mainly used by a person in the course of business or trade to identify and distinguish the source of goods or services of one undertaking from those of another[1].

 

2. Trademark Distinctiveness

The main function of a trademark is to identify the source of goods or services. If a sign cannot identify and distinguish goods or services, it does not have the trademark function and the application of the registration can’t be approved. Distinctiveness is a must for the trademark registration[2].

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Taiwanese Trademark Procedure: How to Cease a Trademark

Produced by Zoomlaw Attorneys-at-Law

17th November 2014

 

  1. 1.      Opposition:

The relevant legislation for opposition of trademark is Section IV of the Trademark Act 2011.

l   Any person can file an opposition to registration of a trademark with the Registrar Office within three month from the day following the date of publication of registration (Article 48)

l   The facts and grounds must be stated and any attachments shall be enclosed with the filed opposition.

l   Once the opposition is filed and sent to the Registrar Office, the proprietor of the opposed trademark will be served a copy and may submit a statement of defense. The Registrar Office shall then serve a copy of the statement to the opponent who may submit an opinion on said statement. However, if the statement or opinion is likely to delay the proceedings, or where the facts and evidence are sufficiently clear, the Registrar Office may conduct opposition proceedings directly.

l   The opposition shall be examined by an examiner who didn’t participate in the examination of the application for registration of the opposed trademark (Article 51)

l   If the opposition is sustained, the registration of the trademark shall be cancelled (Article 54)

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